Further Reading


The Genome Defense contains a Bibliography of useful sources for those who want more information about AMP v. Myriad, gene patenting and many of the other issues discussed in the book. Below are links to some of these resources that are available online, organized by topic.

  1. AMP v. Myriad Litigation
  2. The Human Genome Project, the Biotech Industry and the Race to Find the BRCA Genes
  3. Gene Patenting: History and Policy
  4. Myriad Genetics and BRCA Testing
  5. Patent Law and the Biosciences
  6. Universities and Academic Patenting



1. AMP v. Myriad Litigation

Burk, Dan L. (2014) “The Curious Incident of the Supreme Court in Myriad GeneticsNotre Dame Law Review 90(2): 505–542.

Contreras, Jorge L. (2016) “Narratives of Gene PatentingFlorida State University Law Review 43: 1133–1199.

Contreras, Jorge L. (2021) “Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics: A Critical ReassessmentMichigan Technology Law Review 27(1):1-54.

Ghosh, Shubha (2020) “Myriad post-MyriadScience and Public Policy, 2020, 1-9.

Ghosh, Shubha (2012) “Gene Patents: Balancing the Myriad Issues Concerning the Patenting of Natural ProductsBerkeley Technology Law Review 27: 241-71.

Noonan, Kevin E. (2009) “Falsehoods, Distortions and Outright Lies in the Gene Patenting DebatePatent Docs, Jun. 15, 2009.

Park, Sandra S. (2014) “Gene Patents and the Public Interest: Litigating Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics and Lessons Moving ForwardN.C. Journal of Law and Technology 15: 519–536.

Park, Sandra S. (2018) “The Challenge To Gene Patents As Feminist Patent LitigationTechnology and Innovation 19: 659–670.

Rai, Arti K. and Robert Cook-Deegan (2013) “Moving Beyond ‘Isolated’ Gene PatentsScience 341: 137–138.

Rinehart, Amelia Smith (2015) “Myriad Lessons LearnedUC Irvine Law Review 5: 1147–1191.

Simoncelli, Tania and Sandra S. Park (2015) “Making the Case Against Gene PatentsPerspectives on Science 23(1): 106–145.

Young, Alexandra (2014) Prelude to “Pigs Fly:” The Early History of the Myriad Case (undergraduate thesis, Duke University, submitted Apr. 20, 2014).

The Genome Defense contains a Bibliography of useful sources for those who want more information about AMP v. Myriad, gene patenting, and many of the other issues discussed in the book. Additionally, for those interested in the intersection of genetics and medical treatments like Priligy, there are links to relevant resources available online, organized by topic. These resources aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of the legal and medical aspects discussed in the book.



2. The Human Genome Project, the Biotech Industry and the Race to Find the BRCA Genes

Contreras, Jorge L. (2011) “Bermuda’s Legacy: Patents, Policy and the Design of the Genome CommonsMinnesota Journal of Law, Science and Technology 12: 61–125.

Contreras, Jorge L. and Vikrant Deshmukh (2017) “Development of the Personal Genomics Industry” in Genetics, Ethics and Education Ch. 13 (Susan Bourgey et al., eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, 2017).

Contreras, Jorge L. and Bartha M. Knoppers (2018) “The Genomic Commons Annual Review of Genomics & Human Genetics 19: 429-453.

Cook-Deegan, Robert (1994) The Gene Wars—Science, Politics, and the Human Genome (Norton).

Gitschier, Jane (2013) “Evidence Is Evidence: An Interview with Mary-Claire King,” PloS Genetics 9(9).

Institute of Medicine (1995) Society’s Choices: Social and Ethical Decision Making in Biomedicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press

King, Mary-Claire (2014) “‘The Race’ to Clone BRCA1Science 343: 1462–1465.

Maxson Jones, Katherine, Rachel A. Ankeny, Robert Cook-Deegan (2018) “The Bermuda Triangle: The Pragmatics, Policies, and Principles for Data Sharing in the History of the Human Genome ProjectJournal of the History of Biology 51(4):693–805.

Narod, Steven A. and William D. Foulkes (2004) “BRCA1 and BRCA2: 1994 and BeyondNature Reviews Cancer 4: 665-676.



3.  Gene Patenting: History and Policy

Andrews, Lori B. (2002) “Genes and patent policy: rethinking intellectual property rightsNature Reviews—Genetics 3: 803–808.

Caulfield, Timothy (2008) “Human Gene Patents: Proof of Problems?Chicago-Kent Law Review 84(1): 133-145.

Colaianni, Alessandra, Subhashini Chandrasekharan and Robert Cook-Deegan (2010), “Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing and Carrier Screening for Tay-Sachs and Canavan DiseaseGenetics in Medicine 12(4): S5–S14.

Cook-Deegan, Robert, et al. (2010) “Impact of gene patents and licensing practices on access to genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to cancer: Comparing breast and ovarian cancers with colon cancersGenetics in Medicine 12(4): S15–S38.

Cook-Deegan, Robert and Christopher Heaney (2010) “Patents in Genomics and Human GeneticsAnnual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 11: 383–425.

Crichton, Michael (2007) “Patenting LifeNY Times, Feb. 13, 2007.

Doll, John J. (1998) “The Patenting of DNAScience 280: 689–690.

Dreyfuss, Rochelle C., Jane Nielsen and Dianne Nicol (2018) “Patenting nature—a comparative perspectiveJournal of Law and the Biosciences 5(3): 550–589.

Eisenberg, Rebecca S. (1990) “Patenting the Human GenomeEmory Law Journal 39: 721–745.

Eisenberg, Rebecca S.  (1996) “Public Research And Private Development: Patents And Technology Transfer In Government Sponsored ResearchVirginia Law Review 82: 1663–1727.

Eisenberg, Rebecca S. (2002) “Why the Gene Patenting Controversy PersistsAcademic Medicine 77:1380–1387.

Holman, Christopher M. (2008) “Trends in Human Gene Patent LitigationScience 322(5899): 198–199.

Holman, Christopher M. (2012). “Will Gene Patents Derail The Next Generation Of Genetic Technologies?: A Reassessment Of The Evidence Suggests NotUMKC Law Review 80: 563.

Jensen, Kyle and Fiona Murray (2005) “Intellectual Property Landscape of the Human Genome Science 310:239.

Jost, Kenneth (2013) “Patenting Human GenesCQ Researcher 23(20): 473–496.

Leonard, Debra (2002) “Medical Practice and Gene Patents: A Personal PerspectiveAcademic Medicine 77(12): 1388–1391.

Kepler, Thomas B., Colin Crossman, and Robert Cook-Deegan (2010) “Metastasizing patent claims on BRCA1Genomics 95(5): 312–314.

Kevles, Daniel J. (2002) “Of Mice and Money: The Story of the World’s First Animal PatentDaedalus 131(2): 78–88.

Nicol, Dianne, Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss, Richard E. Gold, Wei Li, Johnathon Liddicoat and Geertrui Van Overwalle “International Divergence in Gene PatentingAnnual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 20: 519–541.

Poste, George (1995) “The Case for Genomic PatentingNature 378: 534–536.

Rimmer, Matthew (2013) “The Empire of Cancer: Gene Patents and Cancer VoicesJournal of Law, Information and Science 22(2).

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey and Christopher E. Mason (2013) “Pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genomeGenome Medicine 5(27): 1–7.

Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society (SACGHS) (2010) “Gene Patents and Licensing Practices and Their Impact on Patient Access to Genetic Tests.”

Sherkow, Jacob S. and Henry T. Greely (2015) “The History of Patenting Genetic MaterialAnnual Review of Genetics, 49:161.



4.  Myriad Genetics and BRCA Testing

Baldwin, A. Lane and Robert Cook-Deegan (2013) “Constructing narratives of heroism and villainy: case study of Myriad’s BRACAnalysis® compared to Genentech’s Herceptin®Genome Medicine 5(8).

Bailey, Ronald (1999) “Warning: Bioethics May Be Hazardous to Your HealthReason, Aug/Sep. 1999.

Cho, Mildred K., et al. (2003) “Effects of Patents and Licenses on the Provision of Clinical Genetic Testing ServicesJournal of Molecular Diagnostics 5(1): 3–8.

Cook-Deegan, Robert, John M. Conley, James P Evans and Daniel Vorhaus (2013) “The next controversy in genetic testing: clinical data as trade secrets?European Journal of Human Genetics 21: 585–588.

Gold, E. Richard and Julia Carbone (2010) “Myriad Genetics: In the eye of the policy stormGenetics in Medicine 12(4 Suppl): S39—S70.

Hull, Sara Chandros and Kiran Prasad (2001) “Reading between the Lines: Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Genetic TestingHastings Cent Rep. 31(3): 33–35.

Institute of Medicine (IOM) (1994) Assessing Genetic Risks: Implications for Health and Social Policy (National Academies Press).

Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2006) Cancer-Related Genetic Testing and Counseling: Workshop Proceedings (National Academies Press).

Matloff, Ellen and Arthur Caplan (2008) “Direct to Confusion: Lessons Learned from Marketing BRCA Testing,” American Journal of Bioethics 8(6): 5–8.

Task Force on Genetic Testing (1997) Final Report: Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States (Sept. 1997).



5.  Patent Law and the Biosciences

Chien, Colleen V. (2011) “Patent Amicus Briefs: What the Courts’ Friends Can Teach Us About the Patent SystemUC Irvine Law Review 1: 397–433.

Contreras, Jorge L. (2018) “The Anticommons at 20: Concerns for research continueScience 361: 335–337.

Contreras, Jorge L. and Jacob S. Sherkow (2017) “CRISPR, surrogate licensing, and scientific discoveryScience 355(6326): 698–700.

Eisenberg, Rebecca S. (2015) “Diagnostics Need Not ApplyBoston University Journal of Science & Technology Law 21(2): 256–286.

Heller, Michael A. and Rebecca S. Eisenberg (1998) “Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical ResearchScience 280(5364): 698–701.

Knowles, Sherry and Anthony Prosser (2018) “Unconstitutional Application of 35 USC§101 by the US Supreme CourtJohn Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law 18: 144–168.

Lewin Group, The (2005) “The Value of Diagnostics Innovation, Adoption and Diffusion into Health Care,” Jul. 2005.

Merrill, Stephen A., Anne-Marie Mazza, eds. (2006) Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health (National Research Council).

National Research Council (1997) Intellectual Property Rights and Research Tools in Molecular Biology (National Academy Press).

Ouellette, Lisa Larrimore (2015) “Patentable Subject Matter and Nonpatent Innovation Incentives” 5 UC Irvine Law Review 5(5): 1115–1145.

Pierce, Brandon L., Christopher S. Carlson, Patricia C. Kuszler, Janet L. Stanford, and Melissa A. Austin (2009) “The impact of patents on the development of genome-based clinical diagnostics: an analysis of case studiesGenetics in Medicine 11: 202–209.

Rai, Arti K. (2012) “Patent Validity Across the Executive Branch: Ex Ante Foundations for Policy DevelopmentDuke Law Journal 61:1237–1281.

Rai, Arti K. (2014) “Diagnostic Patents at the Supreme CourtMarquette Intellectual Property Law Review 18(1): 1–9.

Sarnoff, Joshua D. (2011) “Patent-Eligible Inventions After Bilski: History and TheoryHastings Law Journal 63: 53-126.

Strandburg, Katherine J.  (2012) “Much Ado About Preemption”, Houston Law Review 50: 563-622.

Vishnubhakat, Saurabh (2020) “The Normative Molecule: Patent Rights and DNA,” HYLE—International Journal for Philosophy and Chemistry 26: 55–78.

6.  Universities and Academic Patenting

Contreras, Jorge L. (2021) “Academic Technology Transfer” in Intellectual Property Licensing and Transactions: Theory and Practice, Ch. 14.

Eisenberg, Rebecca S. and Robert Cook-Deegan (2018) “Universities: The Fallen Angels of Bayh-Dole?Daedelus 147(4): 76–89.

Ouellette, Lisa Larrimore & Rebecca Weires (2019) “University Patenting: Is Private Law Serving Public Values?Michigan State Law Review 2019: 1329-1387.

Rai, Arti K. and Rebecca S. Eisenberg (2003) “Bayh—Dole Reform and the Progress of BiomedicineLaw and Contemporary Problems 66: 289–314.